The following event occurred in an under 17 boys classic game:
The keeper of Team A caught shot from team B and proceeded to jog to the top of the penalty area where he bounced the ball once before the impending punt. The bounce hit a sand spot and died in place, wherupon in a continuous motion the keeper scooped it up and punted it. The referee whistled and awarded and indirect free kick to Team B for “touching the ball a second time violation” which resulted in a goal being scored by Team B.

After the game, I questioned the referee about that call, and he stated that once the keeper lost possession of the ball, he could not pick it up again. I stated that the rule requires the keeper to release the ball from his possession which implies intent (except for dropping an air dribble), and that a bad bounce from a field defect does not end possession as long as the keeper’s play is continuous. I have seen the same with a mud spot or water puddle in the goal area and also a divot in the pitch that causes the ball to bounce badly.

USSF answer (September 20, 2011):

While the goalkeeper’s choice of a spot to bounce the ball was unfortunate, he did NOT relinquish possession of the ball by doing it and was perfectly within his rights to reclaim the ball in his hands. The goalkeeper is allowed to throw the ball in the air or bounce it on the ground and still retain possession of the ball. The referee was wrong to call the “second touch.” Naughty, naughty referee!