My research has located two previous answers on this site that are relevant to my question, which is about kicking the ball and GK possession:
1. Sept 20, 2006
2. Feb 12, 2004
Your 2004 answer regarding GK control talked of control by pinning the ball “to the ground or some other surface.” You listed a few “other surfaces”, but did not include the body of an opponent who is lying on the ground.
1.If an attacker has slid or fallen near the goal, and the ball is resting on the back of his thighs or the small of his back, can the GK pin (one hand) and control the ball in that situation?
2.If the attacker attempts to “donkey kick” the ball into the goal, what would your response or action be?
3.Would it differ based on if you thought the attacker was aware or unaware of the GK’s hand on the ball?
4.In an unrelated case where the GK obtains possession by pinning the ball with a hand (let’s say to the ground),is GK possession “instantaneous”? If the GK reaches out a hand and successfully pins the ball while an attacker’s foot is already swinging forward, would you still go with possession? From your answer in 2006, I gather the answer is yes.
USSF answer (October 26, 2009):
Rather than speculate on some possibly dubious situations, let us simply give you the Federation’s guidance, as expressed in the Advice to Referees on the Laws of the Game (2009):
12.16 GOALKEEPER POSSESSION OF THE BALL
The goalkeeper is considered to be in control of the ball when the ball is held with both hands, held by trapping the ball between one hand and any surface (e.g., the ground, a goalpost, the goalkeeper’s body), or holding the ball in the outstretched open palm. Once established, possession is maintained, when the ball is held as described above, while bouncing the ball on the ground or throwing it into the air. Possession is given up if, after throwing the ball into the air, it is allowed to hit the ground. For purposes of determining goalkeeper possession, the “handling” includes contact with any part of the goalkeeper’s arm from the fingertips to the shoulder.
While the ball is in the possession of the goalkeeper, it may not be challenged for or played by an opponent in any manner. An opponent who attempts to challenge for a ball in the possession of the goalkeeper may be considered to have committed a direct free kick foul. However, a ball which is only being controlled by the goalkeeper using means other than the hands is open to otherwise legal challenges by an opponent. The referee should consider the age and skill level of the players in evaluating goalkeeper possession and err on the side of safety.
With that as guidance, you can determine for yourself what the correct answers would be. We must emphasize that the final sentence of the quote is the single most important consideration to follow.